Biological Resources

May 26, 2016

The purpose of this addendum to the biological evaluation (BE) is to analyze the potential impacts to U.S. Forest Service (Forest Service) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Sensitive wildlife...

April 28, 2016

This document represents the Final Reinitiated Biological Opinion requested from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by the Forest Service by submittal of the Supplemental Biological Assessment on...

June 1, 2015

This document was prepared to address new information and other changes that became available after the biological opinion (BO) for the proposed Rosemont Copper Project was issued by the U.S. Fish...

March 4, 2015

The purpose of this memo is to summarize the research and use of wildlife photos with respect to occurrence of several species analyzed in the Supplemental Information Report and the Supplemental...

February 20, 2015

The Mexican Wolf Interagency Field Team (IFT) has completed its annual year-end population survey, documenting a minimum of 109 Mexican wolves in the wild in Arizona and New Mexico at the end of...

February 18, 2015

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) announced today that after an extensive status review of the Sonoran desert tortoise it has determined the population warrants protection under the...

February 17, 2015

February 16, 2015

Multiple independent contemporary surveys for fish in Cienega...

February 4, 2015

As part of the monitoring efforts proposed by Rosemont Copper Company and later HudBay Minerals, Inc. (collectively referred to as “Hudbay”) to address potential impacts of the...

February 2, 2015

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced today that it has completed a status review of the Coleman's coralroot and concluded it does not warrant protection under the Endangered Species...

February 1, 2015

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) surveyed for yellow-billed cuckoo (YBCU, Coccyzus americanus) during the summer of 2013 in the vicinity of the planned Rosemont Copper Mine (the...

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) surveyed for yellow-billed cuckoo (YBCU, Coccyzus americanus) during the summer of 2014 in the vicinity of the Rosemont Project (the Project) in...

January 30, 2015

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) was retained by Rosemont Copper Company (Hudbay) to describe and map vegetation associated with Empire Gulch and Cienega...

January 20, 2015

At the request of Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) surveyed for bats in the vicinity of the Rosemont Project during the 2013 summer season. For the purposes...

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) surveyed for Chiricahua leopard frog (CLF; Rana [Lithobates] chiricahuensis) during 2013 in the vicinity of the planned Rosemont...

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) surveyed for Chiricahua leopard frog (CLF; Lithobates [Rana]1 chiricahuensis) during 2014 in the vicinity of the planned...

January 16, 2015

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), revise the regulations for the nonessential experimental population of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) under section 10(j) of the...

January 15, 2015

The analyses presented by SWCA (2013), and included in the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

January 13, 2015

December 5, 2014

In this Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR), we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), present an updated list of plant and animal species native to the United States that we regard as...

October 3, 2014

September 30, 2014

As requested, our hydrologists Stan Leake, Jesse Dickinson, Don Pool, and Nick Paretti have conducted a technical review of Pima County report "Impacts of the Rosemont Mine on Hydrology and...

September 1, 2014

Fish communities in the Southwest U.S. face numerous threats of anthropogenic origin. Most importantly, declining instream flows have impacted southwestern stream fish assemblages.

...

August 21, 2014

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) is required by section 4(c)(2) of the Endangered Species...

August 15, 2014

July 14, 2014

If constructed, the Rosemont mine will reduce streamflow and groundwater inputs into...

July 8, 2014

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine threatened species status under the Endangered Species...

June 17, 2014

On 6/13/14 PAG headed up a wet/dry mapping of the entire preserve section of Cienega...

March 5, 2014

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat...

December 13, 2013

The 2007 Regional Forester’s...

December 1, 2013

This biological evaluation analyzes the potential impacts to U.S. Forest Service (Forest Service) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Sensitive wildlife and plant species from the proposed...

This report identifies plant and animal taxa of conservation concern that potentially occur in the vicinity of the proposed Rosemont Copper Mine in the Santa Rita Mountains and the potential...

This is one of several documents disclosing the potential effects of the proposed Rosemont Copper Project (project) on plants and animals of conservation concern. Although the proposed project and...

October 3, 2013

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list the yellow-billed cuckoo in the western portions of the United States, Canada, and Mexico (western yellowbilled cuckoo) as a...

September 16, 2013

Saguaro National Park is located in the scenic southwest Sonoran Desert. Visitors from around the world are drawn to the park’s iconic southwestern...

On October 21-22, 2011, Saguaro National Park became the fifth park to host the annual BioBlitz. Starting in 2006 and continuing until the 100th Anniversary of the National Park Service in 2016,...

September 9, 2013

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to delist the Eriogonum gypsophilum (

September 3, 2013

July 29, 2013

July 1, 2013

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the reopening of the public comment period on the August 20, 2012, proposed designation of critical...

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list the northern Mexican gartersnake (Thamnophis eques megalops) and narrow-headed gartersnake (Thamnophis rufipunctatus...

June 27, 2013

The purpose of this paper is to summarize information from the scientific literature regarding the potential effects of ammonia on the environment, in particular on aquatic life near Bristol Bay,...

June 10, 2013

May 16, 2013

An adult male jaguar and an adult male ocelot have been photographed in two separate southern Arizona mountain ranges by automated wildlife monitoring cameras. The images were collected as part of...

May 12, 2013

The purpose of this memo is to document the calculation of the amount of woody material available for disposal from the project site, the amount that can be used for...

May 10, 2013

The historic native state includes the native plant communities that occur on the site, including the historic climax plant community. This state includes other plant communities that naturally...

Noise standards for wind turbines developed by countries such as Sweden and New Zealand and some specific site level standards implemented in the U.S. focus primarily on sleep disturbance and...

May 6, 2013

Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) proposes to develop an open-pit copper mine with associated processing facilities and waste disposal sites within the Rosemont Holdings. The proposed project...

April 25, 2013

Range Map--Abert's Towhee

Range Map--Broad-billed Hummingbird

Range Map--Common Black-Hawk

Range Map--Grasshopper Sparrow

Range Map--Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet

Range Map--Whiskered Screech-Owl

Range Map--Yellow-billed Cuckoo

April 22, 2013

Beardless chinch weed is an erect, many-branched, perennial herb growing 3 to 12 decimeters (dm) (12 to 47 inches (in)) from a woody caudex (stem base). The glabrous (hairless) leaves are 1 to 5...

March 28, 2013

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Rosemont talussnail as endangered or threatened and to designate critical...

March 22, 2013

As part of the ongoing baseline survey being funded by Rosemont Copper Company for their Rosemont Project, WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) surveyed 21 abandoned mine features within the...

February 1, 2013

The Coronado National Forest (CNF) submitted a Biological Assessment in June 2012 (June BA) and a Supplementary BA in October 2012 (October SBA) to US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) for Section 7...

January 28, 2013

With the expansion of human habitation near and within natural habitats, fragile ecosystems are increasingly exposed to artificial night lighting. Amphibians (particularly frogs and salamanders)...

January 16, 2013

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand), was retained by Rosemont Copper Company to prepare a Biological Evaluation (BE) for a proposed reroute of the Arizona Trail (the Project). The Project will...

January 3, 2013

January 1, 2013

Buffelgrass is a non-indigenous, invasive, C4 grass was introduced throughout much of southern Texas, the Southwestern United States, and northern and central Mexico to improve degraded...

This report summarizes monitoring activities conducted during 2012 for Contract No. 12PC32007, Monitoring of Gila River Basin Waters. Monitoring activities were conducted on a subset of streams...

The yellow-billed cuckoo is a species of conservation concern for Pima County and it will be covered under the County’s forthcoming Section 10 permit. In anticipation of this and because of...

December 21, 2012

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) was retained by Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) to prepare a series of technical memorandums for the Rosemont Copper Project (Project) that detail...

December 18, 2012

November 9, 2012

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) was retained by Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) to prepare a series of technical memorandums to supplement the Biological Assessment for the Rosemont Copper...

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) was retained by Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) to prepare a series of technical memorandums to supplement the Biological Assessment for the Rosemont Copper...

November 8, 2012

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) was retained by Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) to prepare a series of technical memorandums to supplement the Biological Assessment for the Rosemont Copper...

October 1, 2012

This document was prepared to address new information obtained after the Biological Assessment (BA) for the proposed Rosemont Copper Project was submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (...

September 29, 2012

Medium - sized [ 76 - 104 cm (30 - 41 in), 6.8 - 19 kg (15 - 40 lb) ] , spotted cat. Females are smaller than males. The upper surface (back) is grayish to cinnamon and paler on the sides;...

September 26, 2012

September 13, 2012

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) was retained by Rosemont Copper Company to conduct surveys for Hexalectris colemanii, Coleman’s coralroot; and H. arizonica, Arizona crested...

September 12, 2012

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) was retained by Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) to document the characteristics of habitats occupied by Hexalectris colemanii and H. arizonica...

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) was retained by Rosemont Copper Company to conduct surveys for Coleman’s coralroot (Hexalectris colemanii) and Arizona crested coralroot (...

September 1, 2012

In 1993 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listed the Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida; “owl”) as threatened under the...

Native plant communities are key to ecosystem health, resiliency, and productivity. Since its creation, the Forest Service has been using native plants in reforestation,...

August 31, 2012

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) conducted surveys in 2011 for four Coronado National Forest sensitive plant species in the Rosemont Project Area and in additional locations outside the...

August 20, 2012

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to designate critical...

August 12, 2012

The Abert's towhee is a large sparrow with gray-brown upper parts and pinkishbrown underparts. The face is dark brown with a light bill. Unlike many birds, the plumage between the sexes is...

August 8, 2012

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list Graptopetalum bartramii (Bartram stonecrop) and Pectis imberbis (beardless...

July 28, 2012

With one of the smallest total distributions of any U.S. birds species, the Abert's Towhee is much sought after by birders who must travel to the desert Southwest to observe it. The greatest...

July 24, 2012

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Sonoran talussnail (Sonorella magdalenensis) as endangered or threatened under the...

The Sonoran talussnail is a relatively large pulmonate (contains functional lungs) terrestrial snail with an average shell diameter of 19 millimeters (mm) (0.74 inches (in)). Species of the ...

July 1, 2012

The Rosemont Copper Preliminary Invasive Species Management Plan (Plan) was created to minimize, reduce, or eliminate the potential for introduction, establishment, spread and...

June 5, 2012

We conducted histological analyses on museum specimens collected 1975-1999 from 10 sites in Arizona and Sonora to test for the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)...

The last wild Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) in Arizona was found dead in Big Casa Blanca Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, in May 1983. However, the species is still well represented in...

June 4, 2012

The proposed action that was originally consulted upon in 2002 was a ten-year grazing permit for the Little Green Valley Complex, set to expire in 2012. This consultation was reinitiated in 2004...

June 1, 2012

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The U.S. Forest Service (Forest Service) is requesting to initiate formal consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), pursuant to Section 7(a)(2) of...

May 16, 2012

The State of Arizona ranks among the highest for its biological diversity – third in the nation for the number of native bird species, second for reptiles, fifth for mammals, eighth for...

May 14, 2012

In the northern Santa Rita Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, there are three named species of the helminthoglyptid landsnail Sonorella Pilsbry, 1900: Sonorella magdalenensis (...

May 4, 2012

April 19, 2012

Rosemont Copper Mining Company (Rosemont) requested that WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) conduct Pima pineapple cactus (PPC) habitat...

March 20, 2012

March 19, 2012

WestLand Resources, Inc. is submitting this letter to revise acreages reported in two documents produced for biological resource surveys of area added to the West end of Rosemont's utility...

March 13, 2012

February 3, 2012

The Rosemont Holdings encompass patented and unpatented claims and fee lands within privately owned, USDA Forest Service, and Bureau of Land Management lands on the northeast side of the Santa...

January 1, 2012

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received an application from Pima County and the Pima County Regional Flood Control District (applicants) for an incidental take permit (ITP...

December 23, 2011

Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) proposes to develop an open-pit copper mine with associated processing facilities and waste disposal sites within the Rosemont Holdings, which encompass patented...

November 12, 2011

The analysis area provides terrestrial and aquatic...

  • General Impacts
  • Impacts to Federally Listed Species
  • Impacts to Special Status Species

October 31, 2011

This report is an addendum to the report “Pima Pineapple Cactus Survey: Proposed Rosemont Project Santa Rita Road Alignment,” dated December 18, 2009, produced by WestLand...

This report is an addendum to the report “Saguaro and Agave Survey: Proposed Rosemont Project Santa Rita Road Alignment,” dated February 3, 2010, that WestLand Resources, Inc...

WestLand Resources, Inc., (WestLand), was retained by Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) to survey for agave (Agave parryi and A. palmeri) and saguaros (Carnegiea gigantea...

October 28, 2011

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) biologists made 10 field visits and inspected a total of 33 mines in 2011 to investigate the level of bat use within the Rosemont Mine project area and adjacent...

October 27, 2011

Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) has authorized WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) to conduct a variety of baseline biological studies within the Rosemont Holdings. Pursuant to that effort,...

October 26, 2011

Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) proposes to develop an open-pit copper mine with associated processing facilities and waste disposal sites within the Rosemont Holdings, which encompass patented...

October 7, 2011

This report is an addendum to the report “Pima Pineapple Cactus Survey: Proposed Rosemont Project Santa Rita Road Alignment”, dated December 18, 2009, produced by WestLand...

This report is an addendum to the report “Saguaro and Agave Survey: Proposed Rosemont Project Santa Rita Road Alignment”, dated February 3, 2010, that WestLand Resources, Inc...

September 1, 2011

The Rosemont Holdings encompass patented and unpatented claims and fee lands within privately owned, USDA Forest Service, and Bureau of Land Management lands on the northeast side of the Santa...

August 31, 2011

August 18, 2011

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand) was retained by Rosemont Copper Company (Rosemont) to conduct baseline biological studies in support of their effort to obtain licensing for mining operations...

August 17, 2011

The purpose of this memorandum is to provide characterization of the nature and extent of offsite riparian resources that might be affected by the proposed Rosemont Copper Mine. The study area...

July 12, 2011

2 This report summarizes fish sampling in behalf of a long ‐ term monitoring plan for fish populations in selected waters of the Gila River basin, Arizona, during sample year (SY) 2010 (period...

June 29, 2011

U.S. population endangered (62 FR 39147; July 22, 1997) without critical...

June 16, 2011

June 1, 2011

Using mist-netting and observational surveys in southeastern Arizona, we documented use of...

May 1, 2011

Invasive species have been directly linked to the replacement of dominant native species (Tilman 1999), the loss of rare species (King 1985), changes in ecosystem structure, alteration of nutrient...

March 15, 2011

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to designate critical...

January 24, 2011

January 21, 2011

January 13, 2011

January 10, 2011

WestLand was retained by Rosemont to evaluate and respond to what we understood to be a determination made by the CNF that the Rosemont Copper Project "may affect, likely to adversely affect...

January 1, 2011

This review considers both new and previously existing information from the recent Chiricahua Leopard Frog Recovery Plan (USFWS 2007), publications and reports produced since the recovery plan was...

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Amoreuxia gonzalezii (Santa Rita yellowshow), Astragalus hypoxylus (Huachuca...

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to revise critical...

Noise pollution from human traffic networks and industrial activity impacts vast areas of our planet. While anthropogenic noise effects on animal communication are well documented, we have very...

Anurans and birds rely on sound for a number of social behaviors. Species that use roadside habitats are exposed to traffic noise that can mask important social signals and directly affect the...

Activity patterns of top predators are adapted for efficient predation, whereas their prey must contend with the conflicting demands of acquiring resources and avoiding predators. Here we analyse...

Two types of animal-vehicle collision (AVC) data are commonly adopted for AVC-related risk analysis research: reported AVC data and carcass removal data. One...

December 14, 2010

November 29, 2010

November 12, 2010

In this memorandum, WestLand analyzes the distribution of the seven species considered and present results of extensive field surveys of five of the species. The seven species considered in this...

September 10, 2010

The plant communities found on an ecological site are naturally variable. Composition and production will vary with yearly conditions, location, aspect, and the natural variability of the soils....

August 13, 2010

WestLand Resources, Inc. (WestLand), was retained by Rosemont Copper Company to survey for Pima pineapple cactus (PPC; Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina) along the southern utility line...

July 29, 2010

This report summarizes fish sampling in behalf of a long‐term monitoring plan for fish populations in selected waters of the Gila River basin, Arizona, during sample year (SY) 2009 (period July 7...

July 22, 2010

This document revises the 1987 list of migratory nongame birds that are thought to be of managem concern. These species are of concern because of (1) documented or apparent population declinef. (2...

April 15, 2010

This report characterizes the distribution and diversity of talus snails (Sonorella spp.) along the "North Ridge" of the Santa Rita Mountains in Pima County, Arizona.

February 17, 2010

February 3, 2010

WestLand was retained by Rosemont to survey for agave and mature saguaros along approximately 22.4 linear miles of proposed water line.

February 1, 2010

Bullfrog eradication is proceeding in the Empire Valley region, and may be completed in 2011 or 2012 if intensive removals in an upper reach of...

January 14, 2010

WestLand Resources conducted a survey of 37 mining features within the Rosemont Holdings and vicinity to determine if they were being used as bat roosts.

January 6, 2010

January 1, 2010

The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher ( Empidonax traillii extimus ) has been the subject of substantial research, monitoring, and management activity since it was listed as an...

This review was completed by the Tucson Sub-office of the Arizona Ecological Services Office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). In addition to the general solicitation of public...

Road-killed vertebrates are a conspicuous effect of roads on animals, particularly in natural preserves where wildlife is protected. Knowledge of the number of vertebrates killed by vehicles in a...

WestLand Resources was asked by Rosemont Copper Company to survey for Hexalectris colemanii on the entire “Rosemont Area” (all areas included in the Rosemont Mine Plan of Operations...

The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is listed as endangered throughout its range in the western hemisphere where it is distributed from southern Texas and southern Arizona through Central and South...

December 21, 2009

As part of the baseline biological studies effort, WestLand has conducted surveys of the Rosemont Holdings and their vicinity for ranids, particularly the Chiricahua leopard frog.

December 18, 2009

WestLand Resources was retained by Rosemont Copper Company to survey for Pima Pineapple cactus along an approx. 22.4 linear miles of proposed waterline, including alternate routes, as part of the...

September 17, 2009

As part of ongoing baseline biological studies, WestLand is conducting studies of Sonorella, including surveys to determine the distribution of Sonorella within and in proximity to the proposed...

August 31, 2009

The general goals of this document, “Considerations for Making Effects Determinations”1 (CMED) for the Chiricahua leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] chiricahuensis), are to focus...

June 15, 2009

June 11, 2009

On June 1st 2006, I joined Doug Duncan from the FWS, Don Carter from Pima County, and Abraham Karam from ASU for a walkthrough of the RR Horseshoe reach on...

Purpose of the trip was to document which fish species are present, and what their gross distribution is. Since the purpose was basic, no fish lengths, numbers, or population estimates were done....

June 5, 2009

In October 2008 WestLand Resources surveyed for Pima Pineapple cactus (PPC) along a 15.77-mile, 120-ft wide corridor for a proposed waterline between Sahuarita and Helvetia, Pima County, Arizona...

April 24, 2009

Rosemont has authorized WestLand Resources to conduct a variety of baseline biological studies for Chiricahua leopard frogs within and in the vicinity of the Rosemont holdings.

March 11, 2009

Rosemont retained WestLand Resources to conduct a variety of biological studies to support special status species, such as the federally listed lesser long-nosed bat. The Palmer's agave has...

A detailed study of lesser long-nosed bats and their potential use of the Rosemont Property was undertaken with initial site visits in 2006, ultrasonic acoustic surveys in 2007 and 2008, and the...

WestLand Resources was retained by Rosemont Copper Company to survey for Pima Pineapple cactus along an approx. 15.77 mile long proposed waterline as part of the proposed Rosemont Copper Project...

January 1, 2009

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90–day finding on 192 species from a petition to list 475 species in the southwestern United States as threatened or endangered...

Animal communication is a dynamic field that promotes cross-disciplinary study of the complex mechanisms of sending and receiving signals, the neurobiology of signal detection and processing, and...

Roadside habitats are important for a range of taxa including plants, insects, mammals, and birds, particularly in developed countries in which large expanses of native vegetation have been...

The Green Ratsnake (Senticolis triaspis) has a broad range that extends from Central America north into the Madrean region of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, yet very little is...

Research to determine noise impacts on animals benefits from methodology that adequately describes the acoustical stimulus as well as the resulting biological responses. We present acoustical...

Adults of several species of western North American passerines are known to migrate to the Mexican monsoon region to undergo molt from July to October before continuing migration to their...

An increase in quarrying, open-cast mining and road traffic suggest that dust deposition onto vegetation may be increasing. This review describes the physical and chemical characters of a range of...

December 12, 2008

This Instruction Memorandum (IM) transmits a new manual for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) special status species program and provides direction for updating existing Bureau...

November 25, 2008

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the northern Mexican gartersnake (Thamnophis eques megalops) as threatened or...

April 3, 2008

February 1, 2008

The southwestern willow flycatcher ( Empidonax traillii extimus , flycatcher) was federally listed as endangered in 1995. The main factors contri buting to populati on declines in Arizona...

January 1, 2008

The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of all migratory nongame...

Jaguars ( Panthera onca ) remain virtually unstudied in the desert environments at the northern extent of their range. Historic sightings from the United States indicate a declining population of...

Locations with natural characteristics, such as forests, are thought to be attractive residential locations. This proposition is tested in the Southwest United States, composed of Arizona and New...

Sky islands provide ideal opportunities for understanding how climatic changes associated with Pleistocene glacial cycles influenced species distributions, genetic diversification, and demography...

Refuge populations of Cyprinodon macularius and Cyprinodon eremus, the extant members of the endangered desert pupfish complex, have been maintained for up to 33 years in semi-...

The Southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter references to willow flycatcher and flycatcher refer to E.t. extimus, except where specifically noted) is an endangered...

July 1, 2007

The Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA) supports three of the rarest ecosystems in the American Southwest: riparian, aquatic, and semidesert grassland; is home to 6...

March 1, 2007

The southwestern willow flycatcher (flycatcher) was federally listed as endangered in 1995. Probable factors contributing to population declines are loss, alteration, and

January 1, 2007

The dramatic increase in human activities all over the world has caused, on an evolutionary time scale, a sudden rise in especially low-pitched noise levels. Ambient noise may be detrimental to...

The Chiricahua leopard frog is federally listed as threatened without critical...

On September 6-8, 2007, Jeff Servoss (USFWS Arizona ES), Bill Burger (AGFD Region VI), and Young Cage (Tucson Herpetological Society, or TH S) conducted visual surveys and trapping for northern...

November 9, 2006

September 27, 2006

September 14, 2006

The Department of Justice (DOJ) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) requested studies on the San Pedro River through the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA) to determine changes...

August 9, 2006

Leptonycteris yerbabuenae is 1 of 4 North American bats with a nose leaf.

June 1, 2006

Little is known about the natural history of the Gila chub, Gila intermedia, a moderate-sized cyprinid endemic to the Gila River Basin of Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico, recently listed...

March 16, 2006

March 1, 2006

The southwestern willow flycatcher (flycatcher) was federally listed as endangered in 1995. Probable factors contributing to population declines are: loss, alteration, and

January 1, 2006

Successful acoustic communication requires that sounds propagate through the environment between the sender and receiver; vocalizations that transmit effectively in the...

The Random Forests multiple-regression tree was used to model climate profiles of 25 biotic communities of the western United States and nine of their constituent species. Analyses of the...

The aim of the present study was to determine the yearly mortality level and identify the collision places of mammals on a road network with varying traffic volume, as well as to establish the...

Understanding patterns of plant population mortality during extreme weather events is important to conservation planners because the frequency of such events is expected to increase, creating the...

September 1, 2005

The purpose of this technical guide is to provide specific direction and guidance for conducting Terrestrial Ecological Unit Inventory (TEUI) at the...

March 24, 2005

January 1, 2005

The jaguar (Panthera onca) is an...

Green rat snakes (Senticolis triaspis) appear to be rare throughout their range, and little is known about their ecology and life history. Using opportunistically captured S. triaspis coupled with...

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), list the Gila chub ( Gila intermedia ) as endangered with critical...

Roads and traffic affect animal populations detrimentally in four ways: they decrease...

We assessed the relation between abundance of desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, and selected biological and physicochemical variables in natural and manmade habitats within the...

November 1, 2004

This document provides guidance to States and Tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect aquatic life from toxic effects of selenium. Under...

September 1, 2004

Las Cienegas National Conservation Area enco mpasses the Empire and Cienega ranches, including the headwaters and intact cienega-st ream of Cienega Creek. This area supports the most intact...

The Coronado National Forest proposes to develop and implement an Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) program for the control of invasive exotic plants. The project area is located on National...

June 15, 2004

April 8, 2004

January 15, 2004

Artificial night lighting is one of the least studied outcomes of urbanization. While the effects of night lighting on mammals and their habitats seem obvious, they remain difficult to quantify....

December 11, 2003

November 13, 2003

August 1, 2003

Declines in many bat populations at both the continental and local level have led to concern for the future of migratory and resident bats in Arizona. The reasons for declines are complex....

January 1, 2003

The southwestern United States and Sonora, Mexico are the ex treme northern limits of the jaguar’s ( Panthera onca ) range (Sanderson and others 2002) , which primarily extends from...

The flow regimes of large arid river catchments are amongst the most variable in the world. Plant communities which inhabit arid floodplains typically exhibit high spatial heterogeneity and are...

The conversion of large natural basins to managed watersheds for the purpose of providing water to urban centers has had a negative...

December 4, 2002

November 15, 2002

September 1, 2002

Photoinhibition, defined as the inhibition of photosynthesis caused by excessive radiance, affects field production to a great extent. This phenomenon is particularly relevant in reforestation...

August 1, 2002

The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) breeds in dense riparian habitats in southwestern North America, and winters in southern Mexico, Central America, and...

January 1, 2002

To analyse characteristic patterns of dynamic and chronic photoinhibition within a plant community, a new technique is proposed, which is based on the long- and short-term recovery time of maximum...

We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate the Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis) as a threatened species pursuant to the...

Three new species of Cyprinodon (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) are described, each long recognized as distinct. Cyprinodon pisteri occupies a variety of systems and habitats in the...

December 26, 2001

December 21, 2001

December 20, 2001

October 19, 2001

This document transmits the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s (Service) biological and conference opinions based on the Service’s review of the proposed fish community reestablishment...

March 7, 2001

April 4, 2000

February 18, 2000

January 1, 2000

Variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was assessed in a captive stock and 11 wild populations (n = 259) from throughout the native range of Desert Pupfish Cyprinodonm aculariusas...

January 1, 1999

Jaguars, Panthera onca, are recorded in North America as fossils from the middle Pleistocene, approximately 850,000 years ago (Seymour, 1993). By the end of the Pleistocene, the jaguar's range...

Identifying the appropriate sampling technique first requires the identification of the proper vegetation characteristic or attribute to measure. To do this the examiner must consider objectives,...

December 1, 1998

The Sonoran topminnow, Poeciliopsis occidentalis, includes two subspecies, the Gila topminnow, Poeciliopsis o. occidentalis, and the Yaqui topminnow, Poeciliopsis o....

The Sonoran topminnow, Poeciliopsis occidentalis, includes two subspecies, the Gila topminnow, Poeciliopsis o. occidentalis, and the Yaqui topminnow, Poeciliopsis o....

January 1, 1998

Translated from the Latin, Buteo nitidus means "shining hawk" or "star buzzard." This striking medium-sized hawk is about 14 -18 inches long, has a wingspan of 32-38 inches,...

Throughout western North America, riparian ecosystem function has been transformed by anthropogenic influences on riverine environments. Modified flood frequency, duration, or intensity; depressed...

Landscapes composed of spatially heterogeneous abiotic conditions should provide a greater diversity of potential niches for plants and animals than do homogeneous landscapes. We tested this...

May 1, 1997

The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an...

January 1, 1997

The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) determines endangered status for the Canelo Hills ladies-tresses (Spiranthes delitescens), the Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana...

On July 22, 1997, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) designated critical...

The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) extends endangered status to the jaguar (Panthera onca) throughout its range under the authority of the...

During winter 1993, Arizona experienced regional river flooding. Floodwaters at the Hassayampa River eroded floodplains and created a 50-m-wide scour zone available for colonization by pioneer...

The lesser long-nosed bat is listed as endangered throughout its range in the United States and Mexico. There is no designated critical...

As currently recognized, Arizona's ranid frog fauna includes the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) and six or seven species of leopard frogs. This leopard frog fauna is surprisingly...

Windblown dust, an environmental problem in many disturbed arid lands, has the potential to affect the physiological performance of desert shrubs. Physiological parameters of gas exchange for...

January 1, 1996

Many landscapes underlying military designated air spaces have been established as national parks, wildlife refuges, or wilderness areas. The juxtaposition of public, wilderness, and military uses...

December 1, 1995

The Mexican spotted owl was listed as a threatened species on 15 April 1993. Two primary reasons were cited for the listing: historical alteration of its...

July 1, 1995

This conference brought together scientists and managers from government, universities, and private organizations to examine the biological diversity and management challenges of the unique "...

January 1, 1995

We reviewed the historical and current status of the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), urban crow roosts and control efforts in California. Crows aggregate in traditional winter roosting...

The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) determines the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) to be an...

January 1, 1994

We compared use of seven habitat types to availability of those types within the home ranges of eight radio-tagged Mexican Spotted Owls (Strixo ccidentalliusc ida). When all...

September 1, 1993

The desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius Baird and Girard) (1853) is a small cyprinodontid fish that once was widespread and abundant in portions of southern Arizona and southeastern California,...

January 1, 1993

The Fish andWildlife Service (Service) determines Coryphantha .scheeri var, robustispina (Pima pineapple cactus) to be an...

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) determines the Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) to be a threatened species under the authority of the...

April 3, 1992

The in vivo photochemical activity of photosystem 11 was inferred from modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and photoacoustic measurements in intact leaves of several plant species (Lycopersicon...

February 1, 1992

Even though light is the ultimate substrate for photosynthetic energy conversion, it can also harm plants. This toxicity is targeted to the water-splitting photosystem II and leads to damage and...

January 1, 1991

We recorded 4,188 events of human activity and associated bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) response in the vicinity of 13 central Arizona nest sites during 1983-85. A hierarchical...

August 22, 1990

The ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ) is listed as endangered throughout its range in the western hemisphere where it is distributed from southe rn Texas and southern Arizona through Central...

March 1, 1990

The northern Santa Rita Mountains, a chain of low peaks rising to nearly 1,900 m, are situated northeast of the main body of the range, which extends nearly 1,000 m higher in elevation. The study...

January 1, 1990

Certain limited areas of National Forest System lands not designated as wilderness and containing outstanding examples of plant and animal communities, geological features, scenic grandeur, or...

January 1, 1989

January 1, 1988

The genus Leptonycteris differs strikingly from most other bats that occur in the United States, in having an elongated muzzle with a small nose leaf at the tip. Its long tongue, an adaptation for...

August 5, 1987

A new subspecies of pupfish, genus Cyprinodon, is described from Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument...

January 1, 1987

The Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a widely distributed species with a breeding range extending from southern British Columbia south to northern Baja California and east to the Atlantic...

The physical and chemical characteristics and ecological consequences of road dust in arctic regions are reviewed with emphasis on recent information gathered along the Dalton Highway and the...

January 1, 1986

The Service determines the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) to be an endangered species...

Reithrodontomys montanus is a small mouse with a prominent dark middorsal body stripe bounded laterally by lighter grayish fur having a peppered appearance.

December 9, 1985

Large tadpoles of five New Mexican species of leopard frogs, Rana berlandieri, R. blairi, R. chiricahuensis, R. pipiens, and R. yavapaiensis can be...

January 1, 1984

Dust scraped from a car exhaust and ground to a particle size range of 1-10 µm was applied at measured rates to leaves of Viburnum tinus. Its effects on photosynthesis and leaf...

January 1, 1983

The fish fauna of the southwestern American deserts has attracted wide attention because it is a fauna of relict populations isolated by harsh terrestrial environments. Most attention has focused...

March 1, 1980

Evidence from various sources demonstrates that the distribution of the desert pupfish, Cyprinodcn rnacularius, has declined in California. The species was once endemic to the Colorado...

January 1, 1977

Between 1 July 1975 and 28 February 1977 a team of University of Arizona faculty conducted an environmental inventory of the Rosemont Area under contract with the Anamax Mining Company. The...

Between 1 July 1975 and 28 February 1977 a team of University of Arizona faculty conducted an environmental inventory of the Rosemont Area under contract with the Anamax Mining Company. The...

Between 1 July 1975 and 28 February 1977 a team of University of Arizona faculty conducted an environmental inventory of the Rosemont Area under contract with the Anamax Mining Company. The...

January 1, 1976

By using a 'black light' and playback of sounds made by foraging insectivorous bats, we examined opportunistic feeding behavior of bats near Camp Verde, Arizona, between I and 10 June 1975...

January 1, 1943

Since the account of the fishes of the Death Valley expedition was published by Gilbert (1893), members of the genus Cyprinodon throughout the arid Southwest have generally been assigned...

January 1, 1916

Recently (May 7-14) I visited Salton Sea in southern California and, incidentally, obtained some information regarding the fishes of that interesting body of water.
As is well known, the...

July 1, 1895